Root Canal Therapy
Root canal therapy is one of the most sophisticated dental treatments. For this reason, most dentists prefer to refer their patients to the endodontist for root canal treatment. In this article, we will try to explain the reasons for root canal treatment and its different steps in simple language. But first it is necessary to give a brief explanation of the tooth structure.
Tooth structure: A healthy tooth consists of two major parts: what appears to be the crown of the tooth and what is found in the jawbone, which is the root of the tooth. But in terms of histology, the tooth actually consists of four distinct parts. These four parts are:
- Enamel, the toughest organ in terms of strength and covering as a whole, the entire crown of the tooth. Except for tooth beauty, the primary function of enamel is to protect the underlying tissues. After birth and complete tooth growth, the enamel-producing cells lose their ability to produce. From then on, enamel is considered a living tissue. For this reason, the enamel tissue is no longer replaced by decay or trauma.
- Dentin, which covers the bulk of the tooth and is covered with enamel on the outside. Dentin hardness is less than enamel. Unlike enamel, the dentin is a living tissue that contains pulp inside it. Dentin maintains its ability to heal at various stages of growth.
- Cementum, which covers the outer surface of the root. This tissue, which is the third hardest (after dentin), plays a key role in the attachment of the tooth to the jawbone.
- Pulp, commonly known as the dental nerve, is a connective tissue associated with the nerves and lymphoid tissue. The primary task of dental pulp is to provide nerve and blood supply to the living tissues of the tooth. The dental pulp is very sensitive to thermal, electrical, mechanical and pressure changes.
When does a tooth need root treatment? In most cases, tooth decay causes the tooth to require root treatment. If tooth decay passes through the enamel and dentin barrier and reaches the pulp of the tooth, inflammation caused by the presence of bacteria causes inflammation in the pulp. This inflammation in turn causes pain in the teeth in several different ways. In these cases, root canal therapy is recommended to relieve pain, remove infectious and inflammatory tissue and ultimately prevent tooth loss. In rare cases, such as a traumatic tooth injury or very advanced gum disease, the tooth will need rooting without any sign of decay.
Stages of root treatment: The first step in root canal therapy is local anesthesia. In the maxilla, only one tooth and the surrounding tissue are usually numb. But in the mandible for the tooth to be anesthetized, the entire mandible needs to be anesthetized. After the area in the patient’s gums and mouth is completely numb, the tooth that is to be treated with a root is treated with a very thin rubber sheet called the Rubber Dam from other teeth and oral tissue (Isolation). This separation is performed to prevent the entry of water and detergents used in the root canal into the patient’s pharynx and to prevent the entry of saliva and bacteria into the treated tooth. Then all decays, old restorations and fractures are removed by a turbine and dental milling machine. This allows the dentist to access the root and the tissues inside it. At this point, all the inflamed pulp, along with the bacteria and other contents of the canal, is expelled from the root canal. This is done by a very delicate tool called “File”. This is called canal cleaning and shaping. At this stage, antimicrobial solutions are used to kill germs and their cellular remains. Then, all the canals in each tooth are filled and blocked with special materials used for root filling. This substance is called Gutta Percha. The main source of this plant material is fully compatible with human tissue. Next, the access path to the canal in the tooth is repaired and in most cases, the tooth is finally laminated.
Reason for dental veneers the treated teeth: As mentioned, in most cases, the teeth need root treatment due to decay or trauma. Both of these causes alter the nature of tooth tissues such as enamel and dentin. During root canal treatment, almost all damaged structures of the tooth are removed and filled with appropriate filler material. Tooth lamination is performed to restore and maintain the damaged tooth structure and extends the life of the teeth that require a dentist’s diagnosis.
Is root canal painful? Upon hearing the name Root Canal Therapy, it is widely believed that the treatment is associated with severe pain. However, root canal therapy is often done to relieve the pain and discomfort of a patient’s teeth. As mentioned, the general dentist or endodontist will perform all the steps of the root canal after ensuring complete local anesthesia at the site of treatment. Of course, in certain cases, such as acute abscesses and infections of the surrounding area, oral anesthesia can be difficult. Root specialists often use lateral techniques to anesthetize the teeth. It is worth noting that in some cases after the end of the root canal treatment and the loss of anesthesia, the treated area may be irritated for several days. This irritation is due to the amount of work done, the possible outflow of fine particles of dental tissue into the bone tissue, inflammation in the surrounding tooth tissue, and problems of this kind. Pain is usually controlled with conventional painkillers after the end of root canal treatment. If you feel a lot of pain, you should contact your dentist. In these cases, re-examination of the cause of the pain is necessary. In such cases, sometimes it is necessary to prescribe antibiotics with painkillers. It is strongly recommended to avoid any arbitrary treatment in these cases.