^ Mateus-Vasconcelos, Elaine Cristine Lemes; Ribeiro, Aline Moreira; Antônio, Flávia Ignácio; Brito, Luiz Gustavo de Oliveira; Ferreira, Cristine Homsi Jorge (2018-06-03). "Physiotherapy methods to facilitate pelvic floor muscle contraction: A systematic review". Physiotherapy Theory and Practice. 34 (6): 420–432. doi:10.1080/09593985.2017.1419520. ISSN 0959-3985. PMID 29278967. S2CID 3885851.
To assess the degree of dysfunction, three measurements must be taken into account. First, an anatomic landmark known as the pubococcygeal line must be determined, which is a straight line connecting the inferior margin of the pubic symphysis at the midline with the junction of the first and second coccygeal elements on a sagittal image. After this, the location of the puborectalis muscle sling is assessed, and a perpendicular line between the pubococcygeal line and muscle sling is drawn. This provides a measurement of pelvic floor descent, with descent greater than 2 cm being considered mild, and 6 cm being considered severe. Lastly, a line from the pubic symphysis to the puborectalis muscle sling is drawn, which is a measurement of the pelvic floor hiatus. Measurements of greater than 6 cm are considered mild, and greater than 10 cm severe. The degree of organ prolapse is assessed relative to the hiatus. The grading of organ prolapse relative to the hiatus is more strict, with any descent being considered abnormal, and greater than 4 cm being considered severe.
^ Vesentini, Giovana; El Dib, Regina; Righesso, Leonardo Augusto Rachele; Piculo, Fernanda; Marini, Gabriela; Ferraz, Guilherme Augusto Rago; Calderon, Iracema de Mattos Paranhos; Barbosa, Angélica Mércia Pascon; Rudge, Marilza Vieira Cunha (2019). "Pelvic floor and abdominal muscle cocontraction in women with and without pelvic floor dysfunction: a systematic review and meta-analysis". Clinics. 74: e1319. doi:10.6061/clinics/2019/e1319. ISSN 1807-5932. PMC 6862713. PMID 31778432.
Biofeedback uses electrodes placed on your body (on the perineum and/or the area around the anus) or probes inserted in the vagina or rectum to sense the degree of tenseness in your pelvic floor muscles. Results displayed on a computer or other device provide cues to help you learn to relax those muscles. Usually, patients feel relief after six to eight weeks of therapy. You may be able to buy or rent a unit to use at home.
The muscles of the pelvic floor must work together and in coordination to perform specific tasks. The pelvic floor has to contract, elongate and relax in very precise ways to perform basic functions like urination, defecation, support the pelvis and organs, and sexual function and pleasure. If your pelvic floor muscles and/or nerves fail to do what they are supposed to do at the right time, problems like painful sex, erectile dysfunction, constipation, and incontinence can occur.
Breathe from your diaphragm. Your inner core is made up of your pelvic floor, your transversus abdominus and multifidus, and your diaphragm. When everything is working optimally, your diaphragm and pelvic floor move in sync. However, when you suck in your gut, slouch over your computer, or experience chronic tension, this pattern gets disrupted. To practice diaphragmatic breathing, lie down on your back. You can put a pillow under your knees, but you want a neutral spine. Place one hand just above your belly button. Breathe in slowly through your nose, allowing your inhale to expand your belly. Feel your upper belly rise under your hand. Keep your upper chest, shoulders, and neck muscles relaxed as you inhale. Then release your breath without forcing it out. Feel your chest and belly drop. Do this for 1-2 minutes and work up to doing this for 5 minutes and several times per day.
Myofascial release was developed by John Barnes to evaluate and treat the myo-fascia throughout the body. The myofascial system is the connective tissue that coats our muscles, nerves, blood vessels, and bones, and runs throughout our bodies. Any tightness or dysfunction in the myofascial system can affect the aforementioned structures and result in pain and or movement dysfunction. By treating the fascia directly, therapists can improve their patient’s range of motion, reduce pain, and improve a patient’s structure and movement patterns.
What sets pelvic floor physical therapists apart is their in depth understanding of the muscles and surrounding structures of the pelvic floor, beyond what was taught in physical therapy graduate school. What that means for a patient who is seeking the help of a pelvic floor physical therapist, is that his or her pelvic floor issues will be examined and treated comprehensively with both internal and external treatment, provide them with lifestyle modifications to help remove any triggers, and receive specific exercises and treatment to help prevent the reoccurrence of pain once he or she has been successfully treated.
Develop your core. You can develop your core muscles (between your pubic bone and lower rib cage) by doing the following: Take in a deep breath while keeping your shoulders down and pulling your abdomen toward the back of your spine. Notice how this feels like engaging a corset. Hold for the count of 10—keeping all those corset muscles pulled in. Aim for doing this 10-20 times per day. This will pull up and strengthen your abdominals and take pressure off your pelvis. This is not the same as sucking in your gut unconsciously. This is consciously developing your core strength. Esther Gokhale of the Gokhale Method teaches this as part of ideal posture: Sit with a towel folded lengthwise under your sitz bones. This will automatically tilt your pelvic bowl forward so that your pubic bone is where it should be—under your pelvic contents. Think of your pelvis as a bowl—you want it tilted so water spills out the front. When you sit, make sure your tailbone is out behind you.
Home exercise programs are essential for each patient. In the case of weakness, a patient will require more pelvic floor, core and functional strengthening and stability exercises. For overactive and pain conditions, the HEP typically consists of relaxation techniques, self-massages (both external and internal), gentle stretching, cardiovascular fitness as tolerated, and eventually pain-free core stability exercises. Both require postural and behavioral modifications and self-care strategies. For more information and detail, check out the book: Heal Pelvic Pain, by Amy Stein or her DVD: Healing Pelvic and Abdominal Pain here.
Exercise. There are a number of exercises you can do at home or at the gym to help strengthen your pelvic floor. Some of the best exercises include bridge pose, wall squats, jumping jacks, and dead bug crunch. For instructions on how to do these exercises, ask a knowledgeable trainer. You can also search online for video instructions. I also recommend that you Google Katy Bowman, who has many good resources for pelvic floor exercises.
A defecating proctogram is a test where you’re given an enema of a thick liquid that can be seen with an X-ray. Your provider will use a special video X-ray to record the movement of your muscles as you attempt to push the liquid out of the rectum. This will help to show how well you are able to pass a bowel movement or any other causes for pelvic floor dysfunction. This test is not painful.
When your pelvic floor muscles are strong and flexible, you are able to control your bladder and bowels by contracting and relaxing the muscles and tissues in your pelvic floor. You also have better orgasms! When these muscles weaken due to habits, such as sitting too much and not moving your hips through their full range of motion, or from muscle tension due to chronic stress or overdeveloping the abdominal and pelvic floor muscles, you can end up with Pelvic Floor Dysfunction.
It’s highly unlikely that someone will head into a therapist’s office for a stand-alone “vaginal massage.” Why not? “It’s one small aspect of the whole therapy,” says Laura Y. Huang, MD, assistant professor of physical medicine and rehabilitation at the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine. She notes that pelvic floor muscle training, biofeedback, soft tissue release, and education are some of the many pelvic floor physical therapy treatments used to relieve pain or retrain muscles. Learning techniques and strategies to manage the condition at home is also part of treatment.
Practice yoga or Pilates. My Pilates teacher has had countless clients over the years who have healed their urinary incontinence in a few months after starting classical Pilates. And, many pelvic floor physical therapists use Pilates reformers as part of their practices. Both Pilates and yoga can help strengthen your core, which helps improve pelvic floor strength. Pilates targets the deep core and helps you develop both strength and flexibility. You can try a Pilates mat class or seek out an instructor who is well-versed in using the equipment. In yoga class you can practice your root lock, or mula bandha, to target your pelvic floor.
Pelvic floor dysfunction is common for many women and includes symptoms that can affect all aspects of everyday life and activities. Pelvic floor muscle (PFM) training is vital for treating different types of pelvic floor dysfunction. Two common problems are uterine prolapse and urinary incontinence both of which stem from muscle weakness. Without the ability to control PFM, pelvic floor training cannot be done successfully. Being able to control PFM is vital for a well functioning pelvic floor. Through vaginal palpation exams and the use of biofeedback the tightening, lifting, and squeezing actions of these muscles can be determined. In addition, abdominal muscle training has been shown to improve pelvic floor muscle function. By increasing abdominal muscle strength and control, a person may have an easier time activating the pelvic floor muscles in sync with the abdominal muscles. Many physiotherapists are specially trained to address the muscles weaknesses associated with pelvic floor dysfunction and through intervention can effectively treat this.
If you think of the pelvis as being the home to organs like the bladder, uterus (or prostate in men) and rectum, the pelvic floor muscles are the home’s foundation. These muscles act as the support structure keeping everything in place within your body. Your pelvic floor muscles add support to several of your organs by wrapping around your pelvic bone. Some of these muscles add more stability by forming a sling around the rectum.
Issues with the pelvic floor can arise from a multitude of reasons. Infections, previous surgeries, childbirth, postural and lifting problems, and trips and falls can all bring on pelvic floor dysfunction. Pelvic floor pain can persist well after the cause of it has been removed. So it is entirely possible to feel the effects of an old infection, surgery or injury, days to years after they occur. Anyone who has had long standing abdomino-pelvic pain, or pain that they can’t seem to get rid of after seeking the help of medical doctors or other healthcare providers is a good candidate for a pelvic floor physical therapy evaluation and possible curative treatment.